Monday, December 9, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Attitudes in Employee Relationship. Answer: Introduction: Organizational behavior is the investigation which is concerned with the effects of the organizational structure on the behavior of the individual within the business corporation. The study also enables to observe the organizations through various perceptions which include various behaviors within the organizational structure and also that of the other business entities (Kashyap 2017). The organizational behavior has been segmented in two empirical divisions .i.e. macro and micro organizational behavior. Micro behavior refers to individual and group dynamics, whereas, macro refers to the whole organization and also the industries which also includes the adoption of the strategies, structures and the contingencies which guide this behavior. The performance of an individual within the business entity has been observed to be made dependent on the bonds developed with the colleagues and the subordinates within the organization (Managementstudyguide 2017). A friendly connection between the employees is of very much essential for a smooth and easy in the discussion on the issues and conflicts if any. As no individual has a potential to perform alone. One of the main roles which are played by attitude is to enhance the relationship among the individuals. Positivity towards life and work is developed by a positive attitude. An individual who possesses a set of professional communication skills, or a high level of intelligence in working and if the positive attitude is absent then the impression wont be that good (Nag 2012). The other individuals will be reluctant to speak and there will be chances of raising conflicts and issues. A negative attitude will be coming-up as the reason of several issues among the employees within t he organizational structure. A negative attitude tends the individual to be reluctant and this will be proven problematic as it will portray bad image if-front of the superiors. This will lead the leaders or the superiors to lose trust in the individual. Moreover, the attitudes have a great impact on the job satisfaction and performance level of an individual. Positivity in the attitude will make the employee accept all the tasks which are allotted by the superiors (intern.internship-uk 2015). This will enable the individual to perform the task and which will enhance the productivity and efficiency. Accepting the allotted task will portray a positive image in-front of the superiors; this will be proven beneficial for the individual as the superior can offer some rewards or incentives against the positive behavior. This in-turn will make the employee work with more dedication and interest, which will automatically enhance the performance bar and also the individual will be feeling satisfied with the job. Job satisfaction and performance level of an individual are linked to each other and also have impacts on each other (Pinder, 2014). Job satisfaction is connected to the productivity of an employee as greater the satisfaction the grea ter will be the dedication and which in-turn will reflect a high level of productivity. Also, a higher level of job satisfaction will lead the employees to perform their tasks with interest and which will decrease absenteeism. The satisfied employees are less likely to quit and this will tend the organization to apprise the employees who have retained and are performing well. A positive attitude of an employee aids the individual and business entity in attaining the goals and targets (Miner, 2015). A satisfied and well-performing employee will be providing positive and desired outcomes to a firm, for instance, a dedicated employee will be always into providing the best quality of services and higher productivity and which will lead to a higher level of satisfaction of customers. Moreover, the individuals who have positive attitude will also tend to behave politely with the customers which will also enhance the satisfaction level of employees and also they are less likely to turn-ove r, which will aid in establishing long-term bonds with the customers and which will also result in customer satisfaction (Wagner and Hollenbeck, 2014). Positivity in the attitude also leads to several aids which will be served to the individual and organization. Work leads to pressure and stress and positive attitude towards work can be considered as the remedy of busting the stress level. Positive thinking proved beneficial in reducing stress, this will enable the employees to be healthy and this will minimize the absenteeism which automatically enhances the productivity of the individuals and also of the organization. In case of the groups or teams, the attitude of an employee plays a great role as it will influence the productivity and performance level of the team (Luthans, Luthans and Luthans, 2015). The team works on the sense of coordination, trust and other factors which are based on the feel of working together. An individual performing in a team is totally connected to the other team mates and the performance level of the individual will reflect in the performance charts of that employee. Moreover, when the individual is working in a group based task then he is supposed to work in a coordinated sense and should have trust on each other and this all will be made possible by positivity in the behavior. A positive attitude of the individual in a team will make the other employees comfortable and they will also try to indulge in the activities which are not a team task (DuBrin, 2013). A positive attitude will tend the other team mates to help and work in coordination. This all will bring enhan cement to the performance level of the team as a whole. Human resource has been considered as one of the most empirical assets of the business entity and also the attitude and behavior of an individual have several impacts on the business organization. A positive attitude will tend the individual to work with more dedication and interest which enhances the productivity and performance on the individual basis (Altman, Valenzi and Hodgetts, 2013). This performance level of an employee is added to the performance and productivity of the organization. Moreover, polite nature of the individual will be aiding the business entity in solving the queries of the customers in a positive and polite way which increases the satisfaction level of the customers. This will also aid in developing and establishing strong bonds and relations with the clients (Usman et al., 2015). Due to this, the customers will have an increase in the sense of trust and confidence about the brand and the same will be reflected in an increase in the sales and goodwill. The po lite nature and positive behavior of an individual within the business entity will develop a positive image of the organization in the market which will be proven beneficial for the firm in many ways., for instance, a positive image will develop the brand equity and which will increase the confidence level of investors and as a result the business corporation will not have ace the financial crisis and also the business entity (Robbins and Judge, 2013). In the limelight of the above-executed analysis, it has been concluded that human resource is one of the most significant assets of the business organization. There are varied factors which are considered as very much liable in stimulating the success and growth of the business entity. The attitude of an individual is one of the empirical factors which play a crucial role in stimulating the success and growth of the individual, a group and also that of the organization. There is a number of areas on which the impact of the attitude of the individual has been observed from the above essay. The above-presented essay has been made focusing on the significance of the attitude of the individual in relation to the individual, groups, and organization. References Altman, S., Valenzi, E. and Hodgetts, R.M., 2013.Organizational behavior: Theory and practice. Elsevier. DuBrin, A.J., 2013.Fundamentals of organizational behavior: An applied perspective. Elsevier. intern.internship-uk, 2015, Attitude and behavior at work, Assessed on 29th August 2017, https://intern.internship-uk.com/attitude-and-behaviour-at-work/. Kashyap, D, 2017, Organizational behavior: Definition characteristics and nature, Assessed on 29th August 2017, https://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/organization/organizational-behaviour/organizational-behaviour-definition-characteristics-and-nature/63741/. Luthans, F., Luthans, B.C. and Luthans, K.W., 2015.Organizational behavior: An evidence-based approach. IAP. Managementstudyguide, 2017, Role of attitudes in employee relationship, Assessed on 29th August 2017, https://www.managementstudyguide.com/role-of-attitude-in-employee-relationship.htm. Miner, J.B., 2015.Organizational behavior 1: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. Routledge. Nag, A, 2012, Significance of positive attitude in the workplace, Assessed onn29th August 2017, https://blog.commlabindia.com/elearning-design/positive-attitude-at-workplace. Pinder, C.C., 2014.Work motivation in organizational behavior. Psychology Press. Robbins, S.P. and Judge, T.A., 2013.Organizational Behavior Global. Pearson. Usman, M., Shahzad, K., Roberts, K.W. and Zafar, M.A., 2015. The Effect of Job Insecurity on Attitude towards Change and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Moderating Role of Isl?mic Work Ethics.Journal of Islamic Business and Management Vol,5(1), p.70. Wagner III, J.A. and Hollenbeck, J.R., 2014.Organizational behavior: Securing competitive advantage. Routledge.
Monday, December 2, 2019
Strategic Analysis and Evaluation of Ryan Air Essay Comprehensive strategic analysis and evaluation of this business enterprise which answers the following questions 1. In-depth environmental analysis of the European Airline industry and discuss the implications for the budget sector and especially for Ryanair. 2. An integrated understanding of the functioning of a company Ã¢â¬â its human and technical operations, leadership, customer relationships and financial structure. 3. Implications of the internal functioning to create viable strategic positioning and discuss any changes to RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to ensure an improved sustainability 4. Evaluate the strategic leadership style of Michael OÃ¢â¬â¢Leary Chloe Butler BUT02048210 BSc Multimedia Technology Business Development V Assignment 2 John Denholm Table of Contents i. Title Page ii. Table of Contents I. Introduction II. Current strategic position II. 1 II. 2 II. 3 III. Functioning III. 1 III. 2 III. 3 III. 4 III. 5 III. 6 SWOT Analysis Human and Technical Operations Customer Relationships Financial Structure Leadership Implications on strategic positioning Market Segmentation Prescriptive, Emergent or something unique Competitive Advantages IV. Environmental analysis V. Recommendations V. 1 VI. Conclusion VII. References VIII. Bibliography IX. Appendices IX. 1 IX. 2 Appendix A Ã¢â¬â PEST Analysis, Haberberg and Rieple (2001) Appendix B Ã¢â¬â Selected responses to survey on no-frills airlines Ã¢â¬â Changes to ensure sustainability Haberberg and Rieple (2001) IX. 3 Appendix C Ã¢â¬â Excerpt concerning RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s dispute with the EU Commission IX. 4 Appendix D Ã¢â¬â Financial Information I. Introduction Ryanair is an Irish airline competing in the fairly recent development of the European budget airline industry. We will write a custom essay sample on Strategic Analysis and Evaluation of Ryan Air specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Strategic Analysis and Evaluation of Ryan Air specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Strategic Analysis and Evaluation of Ryan Air specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer They are one of the key players within the market, and perhaps the most profitable. This report undertakes a detailed study of Ryanair. It looks at RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s current strategy and the management of that strategy. It identifies how the businessÃ¢â¬â¢ operations and functions impacts on the carrierÃ¢â¬â¢s customer relations and leaderships with regard to their overall strategy. It also gives a brief evaluation of RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s financial structure as well as an environmental analysis of the European airline industry and how this affects Ryanair. The report is mainly a case study analysis based on Eleanor OÃ¢â¬â¢HigginsÃ¢â¬â¢ review of Ryanair conducted in 2004. However, other secondary research has been analysed and used to support the arguments put forward in this document. II. Current strategic position To evaluate any organisations strategic position certain factors have to be assessed. These include those below and also the environmental analysis which follows later in the report. II. 1 Market Segmentation Ryanair lay claim to their market segment by stating they were Ã¢â¬ËEuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s first no frills airlineÃ¢â¬â¢, www. yanair. com. Ryanair have made strategic decisions based on increasing their competitive edge, the main one becoming involved in attracting customers at both ends of their routes. Haberberg and Rieple (2001), support this by showing that RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s key source of revenue from as far back as a decade ago has been in enticing passengers from France, Italy and Scandinavia. This has had the a dvantage of increasing their market share as well as the added bonus of creating a well recognised brand name across Europe. II. 2 Prescriptive, Emergent or something unique? Ã¢â¬ËA prescriptive corporate strategy is one where the objective has been defined in advance and the main elements have been developed before the strategy commencesÃ¢â¬ ¦. an emergent corporate strategy is one whose final objective is unclear and whose elements are developed during the course of its life, as the strategy proceedsÃ¢â¬â¢. Lynch (2000) As is shown above by Lynch (2000) the two recognised trategy models are extremely different, however these are the two dominant strategy approaches as stated by Dennis Foster in his lecture on Managing Strategic Change (2006). It is safe to recognise straight away that Ryanair does not sit uniformly with either strategy. However certain aspects or functions could certainly adhere to one or the other as these are sections that make up the carrier as a whole and for an organisation of RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s size different parts would have different aims and objectives underneath a main umbre lla strategy for the organisation. For example any planning undertaken by Ryanair for new routes or planes would follow the prescriptive model as the objective would have been defined beforehand and elements such as finance will have had to have been agreed before any purchasing goes ahead. On the other hand emergent strategies may be in place for things like training and development where elements can be discovered along the way for example if an issue arose where staff needed more health and safety training then the training programme could be redirected. Ryanair, as already stated, follows neither strategic approach religiously and possesses a strategy unique to their organisation, which has identified their needs and objectives. However their approach to strategic management isnÃ¢â¬â¢t unique in itself as the majority of organisations will tailor strategies to suit their businessÃ¢â¬â¢ own individuality. II. 3 Competitive Advantages Their main competitors are carriers including easyJet, BMI baby, FlyBe and ThomsonFly all of who try to attract potential customers by emphasising their low cost tickets. This makes the competition in this market segment fierce as in order to offer the lowest fares, costs must also be kept to a minimum. The well discussed fact that Ryanair possesses a more than favourable relationship with airport operators has benefited the carrier in a time of industry growth and aggressive pricing. The carrier continues to pay little or no costs despite being the focus of the EU Commission in February 2004, Ã¢â¬Ëwhich ruled that Ryanair had been receiving illegal state subsidies for its base airport at publicly-owned Charleroi AirportÃ¢â¬â¢, OÃ¢â¬â¢Higgins (2004), see Appendix C for full details of the controversial dispute. Ryanair and the airport in question defended themselves by declaring they paid a fee for every customer and therefore complied with the EU state aid rules. OÃ¢â¬â¢Higgins (2004) claims that Michael OÃ¢â¬â¢LearyÃ¢â¬â¢s main argument was that the Ã¢â¬Ëstate aid rules allow the Wallonian government to stimulate traffic at an unused airport facility in exactly the same way that every private airport reduces its charges it if wishes to grow its businessÃ¢â¬â¢. However, although these decisions by the EU Commission went against Ryanair, it also made them even more of a household name across the EU. The free publicity was an added bonus, as well as the position Ryanair took, of being almost a saviour of the lesser known airports, bringing them trade and tourism and then being persecuted for it. III. Functioning A businessÃ¢â¬â¢ functions and internal resources can be considered extremely important to an organisation. When running smoothly they ensure business operations are kept on an even keel. If any aspect is disrupted or an issue arises then the whole value chain can come apart. This section firstly provides a SWOT analysis of the company, giving a brief overview of the company then looks at some of RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s most important functions or business areas and how they might influence or affect strategic decisions III. 1 SWOT Analysis Factor Strengths Ways which factor applies to RyanAir Marketing Ã¢â¬â strong branding and reputation, aggressive price strategy. Low costing due to airport operator deals. Reputation as biggest budget airline. Lots of publicity due to OÃ¢â¬â¢Leary and controversial issues. Cash tied up in purchase of new planes. Entire company based on European low cost airline market. Shock profit warnings may have used cash reserves and weakened fiscal structure Refusal to back down over issues such as EU Commission Possible new routes, New planes = larger capacity. Advertising space on website and planes, more revenue Competitors Ã¢â¬â BMI baby, Easyjet, ThomsonFly. Economic recession would mean less disposable income. EU Commission could put restrictions on company if do not adhere to state aid rules Weaknesses Opportunities Threats III. Human and Technical Operations Human resources can be considered one of the most important functions of a business. The vast majority of organisations all employ staff and Ryanair is no exception especially due to their size. When the carrier was established over twenty years ago they only had fifty one members of staff on their payroll. Their staff total for last year was 2,288, www. ryanair. com. With this amount of staff they have to ensure that, in order to have operations like call centres and cabin crews running smoothly, they keep their staff happy and motivated. They do this by offering incentives and a share option scheme which allows employees to participate in the success of the company overall. RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s technical operations should mainly revolve around their aircraft as this is the core of their business. In February of last year they announced an order placed with Boeng for 70 firm aircraft as well as 70 options, www. ryanair. com. This means that between now and 2012 Ryanair will have 225 firm aircraft and options for another 220, allowing them to grow to over 70 million passengers per year. Due to this excellent deal negotiated by the carrier their growing amount of aircraft will not add huge amounts to depreciation costs as they will be depreciated over 23 years. Ryanair has always owned instead of leasing its aircraft but they plan to have a third of their fleet leased in the long term. OÃ¢â¬â¢Higgins (2004) argues that Ã¢â¬Ëowning rather than leasing allows maintenance costs to be capitalised on the balance sheet rather than be reflected in the variable costsÃ¢â¬â¢. Technical operations have to run smoothly for obvious reasons, if a plane scheduled to make a flight for technical problems, for example, then this will impact n all of RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s operations and functions and also cause disharmony amongst their passengers, possibly costing them future ticket sales. III. 3 Customer Relationships In 1999 Mintel published a report on passengersÃ¢â¬â¢ attitude to no frills airlines. Haberberg and Rieple (2001) have summarised this in the table found in Appendix B. This shows that passengers are willing to dispense with the usual levels of airline service and considering it has been seven years since the mentioned Mintel report, the industry has shown it is viable, has staying power and it can be said, has enjoyed a boom period due to itÃ¢â¬â¢s growth. Ryanair constantly offers its passengers the lowest fares in Europe, www. ryanair. com, but has developed its current no frills policy in order to keep costs to a minimum and therefore be in a position to provide cheap seats. However sometimes their no frills policy does backfire. Recently customers have claimed that the destinations offered by Ryanair are misleading as they fly to the regional airports near to the destination city advertised which can sometimes be miles away. OÃ¢â¬â¢Higgins (2004) reports that in Ã¢â¬ËDecember 2003, the Advertising Standards Authority rebuked Ryanair and upheld a misleading advertising complaint against Ryanair for attaching Ã¢â¬ËLyonÃ¢â¬â¢ to its advertisements for offers on flights to St EtienneÃ¢â¬â¢. Ryanair maintains that their advertising is not misleading as Lyon is printed underneath St Etienne, however this still caused one passenger to turn up at Lyon airport only to find that her Ryanair flight left from St Etienne some 75 kilometres away. Ryanair choose to fly to the regional airports rather than the larger national airports due to the favourable cost terms they receive although they argue it is this fact which helps to keep their fares low and also has the added bonus of being less congested therefore helping their flight punctuality. Ryanair were also targeted in 2004 for charging one passenger for the use of a wheelchair. Although they argued strenuously that it was the airportÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility to provide help for disabled passengers they still lost the court case brought against them and had to pay Ã¢â ¬2,400 in compensation. This situation worsened when Ryanair retaliated by levying 70c on all flights leaving from the four airports who do not provide free disability equipment. Things were brought to a head however later in the year when Ryanair made a group of blind and partially sighted passengers disembark their flight stating that they were not allowed to carry more than four passengers at a time. Although Ryanair insisted their disability policy exists for safety reasons, Watchdog reported at the time that no other British airline has a maximum amount of blind people they can carry, www. bc. co. uk. All this bad publicity has not helped RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s brand name but it does not seem to have affected sales figures as ultimately customers are looking for the cheapest way of travelling. Although Ryanair should remember that whilst their no frills, low budget policy has made them highly successful, they also need to keep the majority of their customers satisfied otherwise they could be setting themselv es up for a large fall from grace. III. 4 Financial Structure Since restyling the business into a budget airline, Ryanair have consistently increased in profitability. OÃ¢â¬â¢Higgins (2004) reports that in 2003 Chairman David Bonderman Ã¢â¬Ëpointed out what an awful year it had been for the airline industry, what with war in Iraq, and an outbreak of SARSÃ¢â¬â¢. Despite this Ryanair announced increased profitability, making it their 13th year of consecutive rising profits. Other factors which played parts in RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s fiscal success, as discussed by OÃ¢â¬â¢Higgins (2004), were: Net margin increase of 24 per cent Staff efficiency ratio up by 15 per cent Market capitalisation had grown from Ã¢â ¬397m in 1997 to Ã¢â ¬4. 3bn by 1 July 2003 Profitability seen to be unique among airlines worldwide However in 2004 they received a sharp shock when after announcing a shock profits warning and they became the second worst performer in the FTSE Eurotop 300 index up to the end of April. On top of this OÃ¢â¬â¢HigginsÃ¢â¬â¢ (2004) states that Ã¢â¬ËOÃ¢â¬â¢Leary predicted that the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s 2004 profits would decline by 10 per cent Ã¢â¬â¢ therefore ending their profitable run. More recently Ryanair have enjoyed profitability once more, as shown in Appendix C, the main point being a rise in net profit last year of 18 per cent. III. 5 Leadership RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s fight for survival in the early 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s saw them bring in a new management team, headed up by Michael OÃ¢â¬â¢Leary. The success of the carrierÃ¢â¬â¢s restyle into a no frills airline has made him a very wealthy man, having sold shares off every year since the company was floated has earned him in the region of Ã¢â ¬200m but still left him with a 5. 4per cent stake, making him the largest shareholder, OÃ¢â¬â¢Higgins (2004). Despite the airlines huge success with Michael OÃ¢â¬â¢leary at the helm, he himself has come under scrutiny, resulting n both praise and criticism for both himself as a leader and his management style. OÃ¢â¬â¢Higgins (2004) argues that it is his publicity seeking antics which have earned him a high profile but also his outspokenness which has brought him into the public eye. This is true as OÃ¢â¬â¢Leary makes sure he is personally involved with the publicised events concerning Ryanair, such as the EU Commission investigations. So much so that the EU Commissioner for Belgium has described the airline chief in the Irish Times as Ã¢â¬ËirritatingÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËarrogantÃ¢â¬â¢, Creaton (2004). OÃ¢â¬â¢Higgins (2004) supports this by declaring Ã¢â¬Ëhe is called everything from arrogant pig to messiahÃ¢â¬â¢. She also discusses that Ã¢â¬Ëpresent and former staff have praised OÃ¢â¬â¢LearyÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership style, and in an interview with the Financial Times Magazine Tim Jeans argues that Ã¢â¬ËMichaelÃ¢â¬â¢s genius is his ability to motivate and energise peopleÃ¢â¬â¢ and goes on to state that the airline is Ã¢â¬Ëwithout peerÃ¢â¬â¢, Bowley (2003). This last statement is debatable however as it is OÃ¢â¬â¢Leary who is consistently hitting the headlines and not the rest of the management team or staff. OÃ¢â¬â¢Higgins also supports this point, stating Ã¢â¬ËRyanair is inextricably identified with its dynamic chief executive. He is credited with single-handedly transforming European air transportÃ¢â¬â¢. Although it should be noted that OÃ¢â¬â¢Leary himself disagrees with this last part declaring Ã¢â¬ËI am not Herb Kelleher (the legendary founder of the original budget airline, Southwest Airlines in the US). He was a genius and I am notÃ¢â¬â¢, Bowley (2003). Finlay (2000) discusses the three main characteristics of leaders, outlined below. They must have a strongly held vision They must be able to communicate that vision They must be able to convert the vision into reality When OÃ¢â¬â¢Leary took over at Ryanair his vision was very clear, to model the carrier on Southwest airlines and create EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s first no frills carrier. As far as external communication is concerned it is well recognised that Ryanair was one of, if not the first, budget airline in Europe. Internally, Tim Jeans revealed Ã¢â¬Ëthere is an incredible energy in that place. People work very hard and get a lot out of itÃ¢â¬â¢, Bowley (2003). Certainly the vision has turned into a reality as Ryanair has grown and the Ã¢â¬ËpublicÃ¢â¬â¢s insatiable appetite for bargain getaways has continued to deliver record profits at EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest no frills airlineÃ¢â¬â¢, Davey (2006). While OÃ¢â¬â¢Leary possesses FinlayÃ¢â¬â¢s (2000) characteristics for a leader, his leadership style does not fit rigidly into a type. The below diagram, adapted from Cook et al (1977) shows the types of leaders Finlay (2000) believes to be the more dominant styles. TASK RELATED ORIENTATION LOW PEOPLE RELATED ORIENTATION LOW HIGH Laissez-Faire Human Relations HIGH Autocratic Enrolling The majority of OÃ¢â¬â¢LearyÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership style sits within the enrolling section. Ryanair is highly task orientated, concentrating on tasks such as cost cutting, aircraft acquisition and route development. They are also highly people orientated, both with customers and their staff. However, because of Michael OÃ¢â¬â¢LearyÃ¢â¬â¢s public status his leadership style varies slightly from this model. If Tim Jeans is to be believed in his interview, Bowley (2003), then he should be almost revered. On the other hand he manages to aggravate important people who could have the ability to affect RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s profits negatively. To add to this it has been discussed whether Ryanair should replace OÃ¢â¬â¢Leary as their CEO, McManus (2003). As Ryanair were recently pulled back from the brink of a shock profits warning perhaps it would be fair to give OÃ¢â¬â¢Leary the benefit of the doubt and concede that, for now, his leadership style seems to be working. However Ryanair should be wary of the fact that he does not seem to enjoy smooth sailing. OÃ¢â¬â¢Higgins (2004) states that when the shock profit warning was announced OÃ¢â¬â¢Leary was Ã¢â¬ËirrepressibleÃ¢â¬â¢ and declared Ã¢â¬Ëthis is the most fun you can have without taking your clothes off. It is much more fun when the world is falling apart then when things are boring and going wellÃ¢â¬â¢, Creaton (2004). While this may just be a glib statement to rebuff negative press, it could be a characteristic of the man himself, in which case could well be interpreted into his management of the company. III. 6 Implications on strategic positioning As already discussed, any part of RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s internal operations and functioning will affect the company as a whole if not running smoothly. Dennis Foster (2006) stated in his lecture on Managing Strategic Change that change is a Ã¢â¬Ëpeople based processÃ¢â¬â¢. This means that both staff and customers will have implications on RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic positioning and any changes they make to it. As supported in the leadership section of the report there is a good working atmosphere and relationship between OÃ¢â¬â¢Leary and his employees. This will not particularly impact on RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic positioning as at the moment it seems to be running smoothly, however the carrier should be aware of factors such as health and safety, equal opportunities and trade unions to ensure they are a fair employer and do not deter potential employees. Customer relationships are also generally good, with the company aiming to grow to 70 million passengers per year in a few years time, they should seek to nurture existing customers and their relationship with Ryanair flights in order not to let their position slip. Cavendish (2006) argues that Ã¢â¬ËRyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s revenues last year apparently included almost two million flights that were booked by passengers who never showed upÃ¢â¬â¢. While this is good for Ryanair from a financial point of view, it does not reflect will on them from a customer relations aspect and could affect their position and strategy. RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s recent trouble profit wise certainly would have had implications on their strategic positioning as they would have had to re-evaluate their strategy and fiscal management. This was obviously done well as a year on from their shock profit warning and they had turned it around. However they should be wary of something similar happening again and make allowances in their strategy to intercept this and hopefully divert any more major trouble. Ryanair are well positioned strategy wise at the moment. They are currently EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest no frills, budget airline with big plans for expansion. They need to stay aware of any changes that may affect them and possibly give them cause to redirect their strategy and this can be achieved by keeping a close eye on their business environment. However, as long as the market demand stays high and they continue to keep their costs and therefore their ticket prices low, then with their current strategy, business outlook and leader there is no reason for them not to flourish. IV. Environmental analysis When the airlines were first deregulated it was believed they faced various strategic pressures as stated by Lynch (2000). These included airline closures, major profit falls and new competitive pressures. However, although these aspects may have affected long standing airlines such as British Airways, it also created a gap in the market which Ryanair took full advantage of. Wheelen and Hinger (1993) support this by discussing how many airlines abandoned the smaller communities to focus on the larger markets which in turn opened opportunities for new commuters, these mainly being budget customers. OÃ¢â¬â¢Higgins (2004) agrees and states that RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëfight to survive in the early 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s saw the airline restyle itself to become EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s first low fares, no frills carrier, built on the model of Southwest Airlines, the highly successful Texas based operatorÃ¢â¬â¢. Haberberg and Rieple (2001) also determine that part of RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s success was being Ã¢â¬Ëestablished at a time not only of a period of prolonged growth in its home market but also when discontent with high fares and limited or non-existent competition was increasingÃ¢â¬â¢. They also attribute some of RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s growth and profits to the Irish economy. As Ryanair is an Irish airline they took advantage of being based in EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s fastest growing economy at that time. Haberberg and Rieple (2001) argue that this benefited Ryanair as the Ã¢â¬Ëairline industry has traditionally been sensitive to economic growth cyclesÃ¢â¬â¢. To look specifically at RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s business environment in more depth a PEST analysis was conducted in order to evaluate the following environmental factors affecting the carrier. These are: Political Economical Social Technological This analysis was based on Haberberg and RiepleÃ¢â¬â¢s (2001) view of this process for evaluating business environments, see Appendix A. Factor Political Ways which factor might affect RyanAir Change of government/policy Ryanair have been involved in various legal disputes with governments both in this country and the EU regarding their business deals with airports and airline regulatory bodies Political changes in countries where they have routes to (could also be affected by above point) Governments in countries they fly to may support their own flagship carrier Local councils objecting to noise and new runways being built as in past Governments looking to increase tourism might welcome Ryanair and therefore act in their favour. Potential economic recession, IrelandÃ¢â¬â¢s economy has already been stated as growing however this may suddenly change. Because of above main customers wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t fly for business as would be cost cutting Energy and fuel costs are cause of uncertainty Economic change within countries they fly to or would hope to open new routes to, for example war with Iraq has shut off any hope of tourism there for the foreseeable future and other factors such as SARS (OÃ¢â¬â¢Higgins, 2004) and more recently, Bird Flu. Because of economic growth at the moment it has become normal to fly away for holidays therefore market has expanded and new opportunities for tourism have opened in previously unconsidered countries. Business trips, although Ryanair do not offer luxury they are possibly more attractive because less cost to a company means they can travel more frequently. Lower costs means attract a wider demographic of consumer Main threat to business market is video conferencing To a lesser extent VOIP Online check-in, self service check in at airport OÃ¢â¬â¢Higgins, (2004) discusses that Ryanair currently have a fleet of mainly Boeng 737s which are one of the best known and used commercial aircraft. Ã¢â¬ËThus, the company is able to obtain spares and maintenance services on favourable terms thanks to economies of scale, limit costs of staff training and offer flexibility in scheduling aircraft and crew assignmentsÃ¢â¬â¢. Economic Social Technological V. Recommendations V. 1 Changes to ensure sustainability Davey (2006) declared at the start of this year that Ã¢â¬Ëfigures released yesterday show that (RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s) formula is continuing to workÃ¢â¬â¢. This is directed at RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s aim to keep fares low, mainly by not introducing fuel surcharges. Actions like this, which were of course highly publicised, ensure Ryanair is constantly attracting customers. Part of RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s success is made possible by the fact they are such a lean company, both in the way they operate and the services they offer. OÃ¢â¬â¢Higgins (2004) claims that when the carrier dropped their cargo services, although they were going to be losing Ã¢â ¬500,000 of revenue a year, they decreased the turnaround time of their aircraft from 30 minutes to 25 minutes to attract more business travellers who required the punctuality. Innovativeness like this has ensured RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s sustainability and will carry them forward into the future. To recommend any major changes would be to predict how the airline industry will change which ultimately cannot be foreseen. However it has been concluded that the budget airline will continue enjoying its boom, with many passengers now enjoying the short breaks away at a low price. Also the advent of new routes will bring more custom, from both departure points. If there was to be a drop in demand Ryanair would certainly suffer and subtle shifts in their strategy could be appropriate. For example offering drinks vouchers onboard for the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s next Ryanair flight might entice more people back, or making alliances with hotel groups in order to offer a complete package, rather than just selling advertising space on their website. Ryanair should also pay attention to the technological changes happening in their industry, such as online check in; this could save them out sourcing check in staff at their airports which would enable them to cut their costs down. VI. Conclusion On the whole Ryanair seem to be following a strategy which works for them. They are obviously aware of their business environment and understand the importance of monitoring it as they took advantage of the opening in the market when they restyled themselves over a decade ago. However they need to be aware that this environment is constantly shifting and evolving and therefore maintaining a close eye on it and being ready to adapt to any changes should be a fundamental part of their strategy. Davey (2006) sums up RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s current position and future opportunities succinctly by stating Ã¢â¬Ëat 16 times forward earnings, the share price does not look too demanding given that this is a genuine growth story. It will take some time before the wings of this Ã¢â¬Å"Tesco of the skiesÃ¢â¬ are clippedÃ¢â¬â¢. VII. References www. bbc. co. uk Bowley, Graham, Ã¢â¬ËHow low can you go? Ã¢â¬â¢ Financial Times Magazine, no. , 21 June 2003 Cavendish, Camilla, Ã¢â¬ËA policy that pretends we can all fly on the cheap is a policy that wonÃ¢â¬â¢t flyÃ¢â¬â¢, The Times, 5 January 2006 Creaton, Siobhan, Ã¢â¬ËTurbulent times for RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s high-flierÃ¢â¬â¢, Irish Times, 31 January 2004 Davey, Jenny, Ã¢â¬ËRyanair has earned its wings Ã¢â¬â inv estors should set autopilotÃ¢â¬â¢, The Times, 6 January 2006 Finlay, Paul (2000), Strategic Management. An Introduction to Business and Corporate Strategy. Pearson Education. ISBN 0 201 39827 3 Haberberg, Adrian Rieple, Alison (2001), The Strategic Management of Organisations. Pearson Education Ltd, ISBN 0 130 21971 1 Lynch, Richard (2000), Corporate Strategy 2nd Ed. Pearson Education Ltd, ISBN 0273-64303-7 McManus, John, Ã¢â¬ËMaybe itÃ¢â¬â¢s time for Ryanair to jettison OÃ¢â¬â¢LearyÃ¢â¬â¢, Irish Times, 11 August 2003 OÃ¢â¬â¢Higgins, Eleanor, (2004), Ryanair www. ryanair. com http://web. tic. ac. uk/staff/fosterd Wheelen, Thomas L Hinger, David, J (1993), Cases in Strategic Management 4th Ed. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Inc. ISBN 0-201-568659 VIII. Bibliography Mintzberg et al (2003), The Strategy Process, Concepts, Contexts and Cases. Pearson Education Ltd. ISBN 0-273-65120X Morden, Tony (1999), An Introduction to Business Strategy 2nd Ed. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-709451-4 Stacey, Ralph D (2000), Strategic Management and Organisational Dynamics. Pearson Education Ltd. ISBN 0-273-64212-X Thompson, John L (1990), Strategic Management, Awareness Change. Chapman Hall. ISBN 0-412-37500-1 IX. Appendices IX. 1 Appendix A Ã¢â¬â PEST Analysis, Haberberg and Rieple (2001) Analysing the macro-environment Political Political and legal factors encompass actions by local and national administration and political parties, and by international bodies such as the European Commission, the UN and the World Trade Organisation. Economic Consumer spending power is a major factor in the prosperity of any industry. In most developed and a number of developing countries, personal disposable income has been steadily increasing for the past three decades. Social Consumer tastes ultimately determine where demand is directed. Sometimes these tastes are manifested in what consumers themselves actually buy. In other cases they are expressed through voting, lobbying and other political processes, which influence the decisions of politicians and civil servants. Technological Many major transformations in the ways firms compete can be traced to technological change. Sometimes these changes span the boundaries of many industries and trigger changes in society itself. IX. 2 Appendix B Ã¢â¬â Selected responses to survey on no-frills airlines Ã¢â¬â Haberberg and Rieple (2001), (source: No frills/low cost airlines, Mintel (February 1999)) All (%) Not bothered about the lack of in-flight 34 Experienced nofrill travel (%) 55 Intend to travel on no-frill (%) 66 atering Would not fly long haul on a no-frills carrier Good that no travel agent is required No ticket to worry about If a no-frills airline flew to my destination, I would consider it first 29 19 16 37 35 22 40 46 29 21 34 49 IX. 3 Appendix C Ã¢â¬â Excerpt concerning RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s dispute with the EU Commission, OÃ¢â¬â¢Higgins (2004) The subject of the EU decision was based on non-discrimination legislation preventing airports from offering differential deals to different airli ne operators, and by an embargo on state subsidies to airlines. Incited by Ryanair rivals such as Air France, Virgin Express and easyJet, RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s deals with regional airports had caught the eye of the EU Transport Commissioner, Loyola de Palacio. An EU investigation was launched in late 2002 as to whether Ryanair had been in receipt of illegal state subsidies since its year 2000 establishment of a base at Charleroi. Apparently, the EU Commission had been shocked by alleged offers of a 50 per cent landing fee discount to Ã¢â ¬1 per landing passenger and an even larger handling fee discount to Ã¢â ¬1 instead of Ã¢â ¬8 to Ã¢â ¬13 charged to other airlines, pushing the fee below cost. The airport also provided a contribution of Ã¢â ¬4 per passenger for promotional activities for 15 years. This was on top of initial incentives of Ã¢â ¬1. 92m for opening new routes, Ã¢â ¬768,000 in reimbursements for pilot training and Ã¢â ¬250,000 for hotel acc
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Data Mining in the Pharmaceutical Industry Essay Example Data Mining in the Pharmaceutical Industry Essay Data Mining in the Pharmaceutical Industry Essay A Look at Data Mining in the Pharmaceutical Industry Topics Covered: 1) What is Data Mining and why is it used? 2) How is Data Mining used in the Pharmaceutical Industry? 3) Recent debate in the legality of Data Mining and the Pharmaceutical Industry Pharmaceutical companies are taking advantage of the growing use of technology in the healthcare arena by using data to enhance their marketing efforts and increase the quality of research and development. The process of data mining allows companies to extract useful information from large sets of individual data. This process provides a knowledge that is vital to a pharmaceutical companyÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive position and organizational decision-making. Ã¢â¬Å"Data Mining enables firms and organizations to make calculated decisions by assembling, accumulating, analyzing and accessing corporate data. It uses variety of tools like query and reporting tools, analytical processing tools, and Decision Support System (DSS) toolsÃ¢â¬ (Rangan, 2007). 1) What is Data Mining and why is it used? Data mining is the practice of automatically searching large stores of data to discover patterns and trends that go beyond simple analysis. Data mining uses sophisticated mathematical algorithms to segment the data and evaluate the probability of future events. Data mining is also known as Knowledge Discovery in Data (KDD)Ã¢â¬ (Oracle, 2008). As stated, data mining is used to help find patterns and relationships stored within large sets of data, these patterns and relationships are then used to provide know ledge and value to the end user. The data can help prove and support earlier predictions usually based on statistics or aid in uncovering new information about products and customers. It is usually used by business intelligence organizations, and financial analysts, but is increasingly being used in the sciences to extract information from the enormous data sets generated by modern experimental and observational methods. Data mining is being increasingly used in business to help identify trends that would have otherwise gone unnoticed. There are several different opinions on the exact Ã¢â¬Å"stepsÃ¢â¬ of data mining, but they all agree on these basics: planning, modeling and extracting information. Oracle defines 4 steps in the data mining process: 1) problem definition, 2) data gathering and preparation, 3) model building and evaluation, and 4) knowledge deployment. The first step of data mining is to understand the purpose, scope and requirements of the project . Once the project is specified from a business perspective, it can be formulated as a data mining problem and a preliminary implementation plan can be developedÃ¢â¬ (Oracle, 2008). The data gathering process takes a look at how well the data serves the purpose of the project. In this step many changes can be made to the attributes of the data so that they better serve the objective and requirements of the project. This process can play a large part in the value of the knowledge and information derived from the data. For example, you might transform a DATE_OF_BIRTH column to AGE; you might insert the average income in cases where the INCOME column is nullÃ¢â¬ (Oracle, 2008). The third step of data mining is to build and evaluate the model. The model should be tested and evaluated to make sure that it will answer the question and stay within the requirements of the business objectives stated in the first phase of the process. The final phase includes knowledge deployment which is where actual information and realization comes from the data. Here is where the relationships and patterns are turned into something meaningful that meets the objective of the project. There are several techniques used for data mining, some of them have been used for decades prior to the information technology boom that has changed the system dramatically. According to (Alex Berson, 2000), these Ã¢â¬Å"classicÃ¢â¬ techniques include Statistics, Neighborhoods and Clustering while the Ã¢â¬Å"next generationÃ¢â¬ techniques include Trees, Networks and Rules. In the end the purpose of each of these techniques is to explore data (usually large amounts of data typically business or market related) in search of consistent patterns and/or systematic relationships between variables, and then to validate the findings by applying the detected patterns to new subsets of dataÃ¢â¬ (StatSoft, 2011). As stated above, data mining is often used to solve business decision problems, Ã¢â¬Å"it provides ways to quantitatively measure what business users should already know qualitativelyÃ¢â¬ (Linoff, 2004). A growing number of industries are using data mining to become more competitive in their market by primarily focusing on the customers; increasing their customer relationships and increasing customer acquisition. 2) How is Data Mining Used in the Pharmaceutical Industry? The pharmaceutical industry has copious uses for data mining which include increasing the efficiency of research and development, contributing to drug safety information and to increasing the effectiveness of their marketing efforts. Understanding that the benefit of data mining is allowing for the extraction of useful information from large sets of individual data, it is evident that the pharmaceutical industry has a need for this process. The abundance of diseases prevalent in the world, the multitude of drugs available for each disease, and the variety of patients that take the products, produces massive amounts of information available in the industry. Pharmaceutical companies have begun to use this data to benefit patient safety, physician knowledge and their own marketing efforts. Data mining can be used while companies are researching and testing new products. Ã¢â¬Å"Scientists run experiments to determine activity of potential drugsÃ¢â¬ (Rangan, 2007). They are able to use process that produce results and relationships much faster, they can quickly determine activity on Ã¢â¬Å"relevant genes or to find drug compounds that have desirable characteristicsÃ¢â¬ (Rangan, 2007). Ã¢â¬Å"By relating the chemical structure of different compounds to their pharmacological activity, [data mining] can bringing a degree of predictability to drug screening procedures that, until now, have tended to be a bit hit and missÃ¢â¬ (Results, 2009). That should help scientists and pharmaceutical companies identify more effective compounds to treat different diseases, allowing them to find drug leads in a fraction of the time and at a fraction of the cost of current methods. Ã¢â¬ The earlier methods of experimentation was very time consuming and had to be done over and ov er again each time a new drug was being researched, none of the old information was every used to help with speedier development. Data mining allows the past research to be used when picking compounds as opposed to just randomly choosing and testing. As a drug gets further into the development and into the clinical trial stages, data mining can help predict which diseases and patients will benefit from the drug. Based on past information data mining will provide a correlation between the new molecules, disease states and patients. For example, Pfizer is Ã¢â¬Å"turning to sophisticated data mining techniques to help improve the design of new trials, to better understand possible new uses for existing drugs, and to help examine how drugs are being used after they have been approvedÃ¢â¬ (Salamone). During trial phases they are able to Ã¢â¬Å"understand safety and efficacy profiles within the patient population by tackling the question of patient selection within the framework of demonstrating groups that are most responsive. Data mining framework enables specialists to create customized nodes that can be shared throughout the organizationÃ¢â¬ (Rangan, 2007). Additionally, one of the greatest benefits of data mining in the pharmaceutical industry and the healthcare world is the discovery of adverse events and drug toxicity in patients. It could help determine the adverse reactions associated with a specific drug and still go a step further to show if any specific condition aggravates the adverse reaction for eg age, sex, and obesity (Novartis Business Intelligence report, 2004). Data mining is useful in almost every stage of drug discovery and can aid in toxicity detection, side effect profiles and can work to uncover responsiveness in certain patients. Ã¢â¬Å"The patterns that emerge from data mining this information will not only improve our understanding of this disease, but could give practitioners new insights into prevention and treatment. (Rangan, 2007). As addressed above, a limiting factor in past and current pharmaceutical data is the sheer amount of data and lack of information that exists in the industry. Knowledge and information is being slowed at even a physician and patient level, for example the FDA estimates that only 1% of serious adverse events are actually reported to the companies after they h appen because most practicing healthcare providers do not have the time or means to report the adverse events and have no need for the data at a later time. There is a strong need for data mining techniques within the pharmaceutical industry to understand and detect possible adverse events before they happen to patients. Outside of product research, development and safety, pharmaceutical organizations are using data mining techniques to increase their marketing efforts directly to the consumer as well as to the prescribing physician. They are able to see a better return on the investment of resources based on mining the prescription data released by pharmacies. As discussed earlier, many businesses are using data mining to increase their customer relationships nd encourage product growth. They are able to use the data to gather knowledge and information in order to create more effective and efficient sales strategies. Ã¢â¬Å"Data mining can be used to supplement the pharmaceutical companies marketing efforts by market segmentation, measuring return on investment (ROI) and understanding profitable managed care formulary status. Ã¢â¬Å"A p harmaceutical company can analyze its recent sales force activity and their results to improve targeting of high-value physicians and determine which marketing activities will have the greatest impact in the next few months. The data needs to include competitor market activity as well as information about the local health care systems. The results can be distributed to the sales force via a wide-area network that enables the representatives to review the recommendations from the perspective of the key attributes in the decision process. The ongoing, dynamic analysis of the data warehouse allows best practices from throughout the organization to be applied in specific sales situations. Ã¢â¬ (Alex Berson, 2000) Market segmentation allows for tailored messaging and information to be given to appropriate customers where their need is specifically met. Prescribing information allows the sales representatives to spend appropriate time and resources on customers that have the most need for individual products based on their patient population and historical prescribing trends. Ã¢â¬Å"Supplemented by survey data, patient and physician interviews, information gleaned from epidemiological studies and managed care organizations, questionnaires on web sites, and other market research, a quite detailed picture of a customer base can be identified, with marketing strategies devised accordinglyÃ¢â¬ (Cohen). This is critical at the launch of a product, in order to determine the Ã¢â¬Å"early adoptersÃ¢â¬ that will drive a product use and share their success with professional peers. A successful product launch to the right market segment can allow a product to surpass its competitors in the field. Especially in the era of Ã¢â¬Å"me-tooÃ¢â¬ products with similar efficacy and slightly lower side effects than earlier competitors, the effectiveness of a product launch is vital to the career of the product. Identifying the early adopters and focusing tailored promotional efforts on this segment (as opposed to broadcasting a general message to all physicians) can be crucial to the success of the productÃ¢â¬ (Cohen). Measuring the ROI of certain programs and resources the organizations use, can help save time and money by making sure the resources are being put in the most favorable places to produce the most amount of business and patient satisfaction. Data mining allows pharmaceutical companies to get an idea of how their field promotions and direct to consumer promotion programs are driving business results. The promotional efforts of these organizations are tremendous and indlude field promotions: representative sales calls, peer-to-peer dinner meetings, exhibits at conventions, promotional samples, and direct to consumer advertising which include: commercials, websites, patient education materials the companies spend billions of dollars on the promotion of a single product. Data mining can help stream line the customers that are targeted for these promotional events and help make more accurate decisions on where to spend their resources so that they make sense for the physician, patient and the organization. The formulary status of a specific drug is very dependent on the location and area in question. The managed care market dynamics are very critical to effective targeting and marketing of pharmaceutical companies. Physicians are generally unaware of specific prescription coverage on certain health care plans, especially if a pharmacy benefits manager (PBM) is used in lieu of the actual healthcare benefits to manage prescriptions. For this reason it is important that each organization have the data to support the needs of the various customers and plans to help physicians overcome the obstacles they encounter while prescribing certain drugs to their specific environment. There are many facets of the pharmaceutical industry, including patient care and marketing that can widely benefit from utilizing decision support systems and data mining. The process is revolutionizing early drug discovery and increasing the speed and effectiveness that scientists have in uncovering new molecules to treat various disease states. It has a place in patient safety by providing early detection of drug-on-drug interactions, toxicity and adverse reactions. Finally it is widely used to supplement the marketing efforts in the field and increase the business acumen and accuracy of the promotional side of the industry. 3) Recent debate in the legality of Data Mining and the Pharmaceutical Industry In the past 10 years, the pharmaceutical industry has been scrutinized for various activities that have lawmakers on the watch and uncertain about the agenda these organizations have when promoting their products. With the blatant need for healthcare reform and a slow demise of the American healthcare industry this scrutiny of the pharmaceutical industry has steadily increased and the reputation of these organizations has increasingly plummeted. Within this scrutiny, authorities have begun to question the lawfulness of data mining and the use of prescription-drug records used in promotional efforts. Some argue that the data-mining is purely to grow market share for money-hungry companies and has little relation to the care or need of patients and physicians. As recently as 2011 the Supreme Court heard a case assessing the legality of prescription-drug records being used to promote pharmaceutical products. After a patient fills a prescription Ã¢â¬Å"pharmacies can sell the other information in those prescriptions to data-mining companies (they cannot sell patient identification information), who sift through all this information, spot trends and patterns, and then sell that to, as in this case, drug companies, who can then have their sales representatives do targeted marketing of brand-name drugs to doctorsÃ¢â¬ (Coyle, 2011). Drug makers buy prescription records that reveal the prescribing practices of individual doctors from data mining companies and, based on the information, practice a type of marketing called detailing, in which sales representatives, who already know which doctors prescribe certain kinds of medications, pitch information about new drugs they think will be of interest to the doctorÃ¢â¬ (Lewis, 2011). The discrepancy existed in the State of Vermont where lawmakers made it unlawful to sell this information without the prescribing physicians consent, however this law was ruled unconstitutional in the lower federal appellate court, bringing the decision to the Supreme Court. The following is an excerpt from an interview done after the hearing. Vermonts purpose in enacting the law was to protect the privacy of the doctors information, to encourage prescription of generic drugs, which would help lower health costs in the state, and also to protect the public health, which it felt could be endangered by drug companies sales representatives presenting one-sided information to the doctors. Then, on the other side, you have the drug companies and other businesses concerned that if the court restricts access to this kind of information then, that they wont get the kind of information they say they need to make important business decisions, ot just marketing decisions, research decisions, ot her decisions that they think could be beneficial to consumersÃ¢â¬ (Coyle, 2011). The Supreme Court ended up over-ruling this decision based on the First Amendment right and gave pharmaceutical industries a big victory in their use of Data Mining. Ã¢â¬Å"The Supreme Court handed down a 6-3 majority decision and ruled that the law interfered with the pharmaceutical industrys First Amendment right to market its products (Lewis, 2011). Ã¢â¬ Despite the controversy, it is evident that there is a wealth of knowledge and information to be gained by the use of data mining in the pharmaceutical industry. It is a process that allows an organization to streamline the massive amounts of data and make educated research developments and business decisions based on the information. Alex Berson, S. S. (2000). Building Data Application for CRM. McGraw-Hill. Cohen, J. (n. d. ). Data Mining of Market Knowledge in the Pharmaceutical Industry. Data Mining of Market Knowledge in the Pharmaceutical Industry. Coyle, M. (2011, April 26). National Law Journal. (R. Suarez, Interviewer) Lewis, N. (2011, Januray 24). Drug Prescription Data Mining Cleared by the Supreme Court. Retrieved August 09, 2011, from Informtion Week: informationweek. com/news/healthcare/security-privacy/231000397 Linoff, G. (2004). Data Miners. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Data Miners Inc. : data-miners. com/resources/SUGI29-Survival. pdf Oracle. (2008, May). Data Mining Concepts. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Oracle: http://download. oracle. com/docs/cd/B28359_01/datamine. 111/b28129/process. htm Rangan, J. (2007). Applications of Data Mining Techniques in the Pharmaceutical Industry. Journal of Theoretical and Implied Information Technology, 7. Results, I. (2009, Feb 3). Data Mining Promises to Dig Up New Drugs. Retrieved August 9, 2011, from Science Daily: sciencedaily. com/releases/2009/02/090202140042. htm Salamone, S. (n. d. ). Pfizer Data Mining Focuses on Clinical Trials. Retrieved August 09, 2011, from Bio. It. Com: bio-itworld. com/newsitems/2006/february/02-23-06-news-pfizer StatSoft. (2011). Statsoft: Data Mining Techniques. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Statsoft: statsoft. com/textbook/data-mining-techniques/#eda
Saturday, November 23, 2019
8 most attractive universities for students and great destinations for tourists 8 Most Beautiful Places to Go to Graduate School Where to go to graduate school? If you are asking this question and reviewing opportunities where to go as a grad student, this article will give you plenty of ideas. We decided to discover most beautiful universities that do not only offer an interesting and useful study process but look amazing. The universities we are going to tell you about have an awesome look and provide students a wonderful surrounding area to enjoy free time from studying. Top most wonderful universities to graduate school 8. University of Colorado, Boulder The university is based at the Rocky Mountains and was built in 1876. The place has a dry and warm climate, which you will be able to enjoy by biking and hiking. You can definitely call this place green because of wonderful nature and historical buildings that surround the university. Boulder also has a local farmerÃ¢â¬â¢s market that runs from April to October and offers locals and students the freshest food. 7. Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles, CA This lovely place with sunny days and awesome beaches is one of the favorite places for students and tourist who come here. A lot of people all over the world would live to set here and enjoy days by the blue water. Students who have a great opportunity to spend their college years here can swim, sunbathe, and surf all year round. 6. University of Washington, Seattle A beautiful place, however, with an oceanic climate and wet winters still deserves a place in the list of most attractive universities in the world. Here students have a lot of opportunities to develop culturally. The city is rich in music, arts, theaters, and museums. Also, the city is also famous for a delicious coffee. You will have a lot of space to walk around and enjoy unforgettable views. It is even hard to believe that some young people study here and walk those streets every day. 5. The University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT Five national parks, world-famous Salt Lake, warm summers and cool winters attract not only young people to enter The University of Utah, but tourist to spend a vacation here. From every point of the city, you can enjoy a wonderful view of Oquirrh mountain ranges. 4. University of Texas, San Antonio If you want to combine studying with exciting leisure, this place is number one. The city has a subtropical climate and provides a spectacular nightlife. However, the city has historical roots, it offers a lot of contemporary entertainments. There are a lot of places to visit around the university, such as Japanese Tea Gardens and National Park. 3. University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI If you are attracted by rainforests and islands, then you must come here. This place is number one when it comes to outdoor activities, such as biking, surfing, and paddling. It is only 3 miles from the university to a famous Waikiki Beach where you can fully enjoy sunbathing, tasting delicious food, and having fun at night. 2. Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA The university and the campus are located along the coastline that provides a breathtaking view on the Pacific Ocean. The climate here suits pretty everyone. It is warm and dry, so students and visitors of the city can enjoy various activities. In 2007, The Pepperdine University campus was rated number one in the list of most beautiful campuses all over the globe. 1. Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH The campus of this university is called one of the most awesome not because of nature here but numerous opportunities for students. Once you come here, you will be able to take pleasure in hiking, biking, and snowmobiling. The university is located along the Connecticut River and the White Mountain National Forest which are the places you must see. A remarkable architecture from 19th century adds charm to this nice city. Maybe this information will help with writing a paper for your school or college, so do not be shy to use it and get a high grade!
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Communication and Crisis Paper - Essay Example Further, it is important to communicate the crisis as it is Ã¢â¬â communicate the issue quickly and tell the truth, both to the public and within the emergency management office. By doing this, all will have been accomplished to minimize the effects of the situation (Ulmer, Sellnow, & Seeger, 2006). As the director of the Regional Emergency Management Office, he or she should ensure that communication within the organization takes the following channel. First, the head officials of the management office and the head of public relations should be contacted. As soon as these two heads and their respective offices have been contacted, the implementation of the plan can be started. After discussions between these different offices, communication of the crisis is then released to the other departments and staff so that they can prepare for the communication and deal with the crisis. Effective communication within the organization will involve the formation of a crisis communications te am, exploration of the crisis situation, developing a message and managing communications. Later, the course of communication and action is decided; the information is communicated to the sub-regional heads and the service directors of regional divisions. After the communication of the crisis situation has reached the regional divisions, teams will be formed among the concerned and non-concerned departments due to the need to address the crisis situation in the shortest time possible. Further, communication will be continued during and after the implementation of the mitigation of the emergency situation (Smith & Millar, 2002). The potential advantages associated with communicating the crisis situation within the organization and to the public and private secto
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Research Paper Example In 2007, Singapore was able to generate $9.4 billion USD in tourism revenue which makes up three percent of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s entire gross domestic product (Research and Markets 1). This growth in tourism is sparked by the development of the National Tourist Offices operated by the government, with a variety of strategic alliances with such companies as the airline Cathay Pacific and Singapore Airlines (Riege and Perry 1294). It was only recently that the government recognized that casino gaming could represent a significant marketing opportunity to boost more international interest in tourism. There has been significant social disparity occurring in Indonesia about the viability and economic benefits of casino gambling which has, until just recently, prevented development of casinos as part of a new tourism philosophy. In 2011, petitioners asked the Singaporean Constitutional Court to declare certain provisions and regulations to be held unconstitutional that had, previously, pro hibited gambling in any form in the country. At the same time, government has been attempting to elicit foreign investment from major hospitality companies to develop and launch casino gambling as a means of improving its competitive marketing position internationally. This conflict stems from concern over the many low-wage citizens in the country, believing that casino gambling would detract from their quality of living. However, despite these concerns, the government and the court systems have relaxed the many strict regulations prohibiting gaming in this fashion, thereby allowing development of the first casino gambling facility in 2012 in the city of Bintan. The only major player in the gaming operations in Singapore is Malaysia-based Landmarks Bhd., an investment holding company operating a diverse portfolio of hospitality businesses internationally. The Las Vegas Sands, one of LandmarksÃ¢â¬â¢ largest shareholders, has been integral in petitioning the Singaporean government t o allow development and relax regulatory pressures denying such construction. Upon development of the LandmarksÃ¢â¬â¢ gaming project, it is expected that total revenues stemming from gaming will increase 16 percent to $30.3 billion (Hin 2). The social impact of gaming in Singapore is substantial. There is evidence that low-income citizens in the country maintain social characteristics that will ultimately lead to gambling addictions. Some have even turned to criminal behaviors as a means of sustaining this addiction, which has concerned many Singaporean citizens (Global Voices 2). These social concerns have, and still continue to, conflict the process of rapid gaming development in this growing country with much more economic influence today than in previous years. As previously identified, there are conflicting laws associated with casino gambling in this country. The Constitution clearly prohibits gambling in any format in the country, however representatives of the government c ontinue to amend the Constitution and create new, regionally-based policies that seek to overturn these prohibitions. However, such amendments require intervention with voting citizens both regionally and nationally-wide, again conflicting the process of securing long-term contracts and agreements for casino development and other associated hospitality organizations devoted to promoting tourism and economic growth. The Singapore conflicts associated with disparate laws and regulations illustrates a marked difference from
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Investigate the following hypothesises Essay Drop (d) in cm Frequency Cumulative Frequency 5 will now put the results from the cumulative frequency table into a cumulative frequency curve for males and females. From both cumulative frequency curves I can take an approximate median and inter-quartile range for both females and males. It tells me that the females have a smaller and lower inter-quartile range, of 4 (16 12=4) than the males whom have a wider and higher one of 7 (19 12= 7). This suggests that the male results in general were more varied than those of the females. It also suggests that the approximate median average for females was 14. Whereas the approximate median for males is 15. 5, which implies that the females have a lower reaction time on median average than males. However, there is only a slight difference. To show the inter-quartile ranges and the median more clearly I have put the information from the cumulative frequency graph into a box plot for each of males and females. These box plots define the varied results of the males and the closeness between the females results. I will now use histograms to show the continuous grouped data. . Drop (d) in cm Frequency width Frequency Frequency Density 5The standard deviation measures the spread of the data about the mean value. It can allow me to compare males and females, which may have the same mean but a different range. Gender Mean average Step 1From the results of the standard deviation I can distinguish that the distribution round the mean average of the female and male frequency was very low. The standard deviation suggests that the females results are generally more spread out round the mean rather than the males whom are not so spread out. This means that males generally have similar reaction times rather than females whom the results imply to have more varied results. Conclusion: From the data I collected I have found that males appear to have better reaction times than females, which seems to be linked closely to them having lower pulse rates. This suggests both my hypotheses to be correct and closely linked to one another. Although, on median average females have been implied to have a lower reaction time. However, the male and female median average are extremely similar so due to the males having a increasingly better mean average seem to generally have better pulse rates and reaction times. This proves that everyone has different reaction times, which can be altered by many different variables such as that as pulse rate. Evaluation: I could have tested reaction times in a many more ways and did not have to use just light as a stimuli for the reaction time. I could have used sound like the reaction time for someone to hear the sound of a gun at a beginning of a race and to react to that and start running. Also the subjects results could have been affected by anything from light and sound distractions to whether they had consumed a substance containing caffeine before they had taken part in the activity set for them. Some of these will not have been able to improve on but others such as where and when I had collected my data may have made possible for bias results to come up in my investigation. Whether the subjects were tired, focussed, motivated will have made a difference to their performance as well so external influences can play a big part in the alteration of results. Also if the participant had carried out this particular type of investigation before or if they trained specially to improve a reaction like those whom train for sprinting would have had a clear advantage than those whom had not carried out the experiment before. In my experiment I also found that an exact recording of how far the ruler actually dropped before it was caught hard and can be seen to have been rounded to the nearest centimetre, which will not have not given me very accurate results. Kirstie Anne Jackson Mathematics 2 Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.